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小猪哼囔 发表于 2021-7-17 23:16:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

By John Teresko
March 1, 2006 -- The following was overheard at Haas Automation Inc., Oxnard, Calif., recently: "Make machine tools in China? . . . And miss the bargain rates on all the empty cargo containers returning to China?"
Behind that quip is a lot more than the company's policy of making everything at its Oxnard, Calif., headquarters. While manufacturing is local, customers are global. Its business model is built on management's intimate involvement with product, process and technology -- enough to establish and grow a global leadership position via customer value and even enough to be emulated by (gasp) some Japanese manufacturers! (The company refers to its relentless pursuit of excellence as "The Haas Way.") Gene Haas, president and owner, readily admits that he didn't set out to become a machine tool manufacturer -- much less a global leader.

Gene Haas

It's almost as if he were inspired by a message from an old Warner & Swasey corporate ad campaign. In the decades before its demise in 1992, that Cleveland-based machine tool maker's ads emphasized fundamental values. In 1944 an ad promoted America over competing nations and warned of the dangers inherent from a lack of individual initiative. Titled "Let (George) Washington Do It," it reads, in part: "If one thing more than any other has made America great, has given us the highest standard of living in the world, it is the grand American custom of 'paddling your own canoe.' It is that manly habit that has led millions of Americans to launch their own businesses, creating millions of better jobs for others."

In the early 1980s, Gene Haas was already "paddling his own canoe" by operating a machine shop called Pro-Turn Engineering in Sun Valley, Calif. It was basically him and a couple of machine operators who ran production parts for the aerospace industry. They specialized in machining parts that many other shops turned away because of their complexity. Satisfying those customers rapidly led to new ones via the following series of defining events:

The founding of Haas Automation Inc. in 1983.
The debut of the first Haas CNC machining center at IMTS in 1988.
The building, sales and shipment of 10,000 machine tools in one year (2005), a record increase of more than 22% over 2004 and more than 200% over 2003.
The milestone shipment of the company's 50,000th machine tool in 2005. The CNC machine, a SL-20APL turning center with an automatic parts loader was sold to Western Saw, an Oxnard, Calif., neighbor that now has five Haas machines.
How did Pro-Turn Engineering, a job shop, become the global leader, by unit volume, of CNC machine tools?

In the 1980s one of the jobs Gene Haas and his machine operators were running required indexing a part with a manual 5C collet head, which was time consuming and labor intensive. Gene thought there had to be a better way to run the job, so he began developing the first fully programmable automatic 5C collet indexer. He became his own customer.

Haas growth and plant expansion are driven by innovation -- as with the unique Haas Office Mill. It's small enough to fit through an office door and light enough for most freight elevators. Customer Matt McCormick is shown setting up a unit at the University of Southern California's Doherty Retina Institute.
The mechanical aspects of the Haas 5C were pretty straightforward, incorporating a stepper motor as the driving mechanism and a manual 5C head modified to accommodate a worm and gear housing. But deciding how to drive the motor and control motion was another story.

At times, Gene entertained the idea of using someone else's control, but costs were too high. So he called his old school buddy Kurt Zierhut, who happened to be an electrical engineer, and together they came up with the first version of what is still called "the black box" -- the Haas rotary control. (Zierhut later designed the Haas CNC controls and currently serves as director of electrical engineering.)

Gene built a few of his indexers and put them into the hands of friends and acquaintances at other machine shops for real-world testing, asking only for feedback in return. Everybody loved them and thought they were a great way to increase productivity on manual machines. When Gene offered the Haas 5C for sale to the general public in 1983 at Westec in Los Angeles, Haas Automation was born.

Machinist Raudel Marquez inspects lathe output.
Customers loved the concept and soon began asking for something bigger. This led to the development of an 8-inch rotary table in 1985. As with the 5C, the Haas rotary table consisted of a manual device fitted with a stepper motor and control. By 1986, demand for the Haas 5C and 8-inch rotary table had outstripped the capabilities of the manufacturer supplying the manual units. To meet the growing demand, Gene developed heads and tables of his own design and began manufacturing them himself. By bringing manufacturing in-house, Haas Automation was better able to control quality, cost, delivery times and pass the savings onto customers.

Constant feedback and suggestions from customers led to the development of more new rotary products and eventually the development of a vertical machining center. At Chicago's IMTS in 1988, Haas introduced the VF-1 a 20-inch x 16-inch vertical machining center priced less than $50,000 -- a major feat.

See Also: The Racing Links

The passions of winning, racing and machine tools have played important roles in the life of Gene Haas.
By always designing products that he would use himself, Gene Haas discovered a formula that resulted in phenomenal success and rapid growth, even in the face of a recession that slowed global economic growth. That design approach continued resulting in the 1993 introduction of the company's first horizontal machining center, the HS-1RP, at Westec in Los Angeles. The following year saw the introduction of the first Haas CNC lathe, the HL-1. In March 1997, the company moved into a new 420,000 square-foot facility at its current location in Oxnard, Calif. One month later the company produced its 10,000th CNC machine. The following year, in March 1998, the 15,000th machine tool rolled off the assembly line, and by April 1999, that total surpassed the 20,000 mark.

By the end of 1997, monthly production of CNC machines exceeded 550 units making Haas the largest unit-volume machine tool builder in America. To accommodate continued growth, a new 200,000-square-foot building was built adjacent to the existing facility. That expanded production lines and increased machine shop capabilities while providing space to house one month's supply of finished machine stock to speed shipments to customers. The expansion brought the total square footage to 620,000 to become the largest single machine tool facility in the U.S. By September 2000, the 25,000th Haas machine tool was in service (in the Chicago area).

Haas makes all of its machines at its Oxnard, Calif., headquarters. Shown is the production line for its medium vertical machining centers. More than 900 CNC machines are made each month.
In 2001, the addition of another 200,000-square-foot building brought the total to 820,000 square feet. Richard Mountan, director of operations, says this month will see the addition of 211,000 square feet with the goal of increasing monthly output of machine tools by 300 units -- to 1,300. Mountan's constant challenge is increasing production output without jeopardizing quality or efficiency.

Today, Haas Automation manufactures four major product lines -- vertical machining centers, horizontal machining centers, CNC turning centers and rotary tables -- as well as a number of large five-axis and specialty machines. Mountan says employment is about 1,100 and growing. With the largest, most modern machine tool manufacturing facility in the U.S., Mountan says Haas ships more CNC machines per month than any other U.S. producer. He expects that to continue as the company pursues a goal of growing 2005 revenues of $600 million to $1 billion by 2010.

To maximize throughput and efficiency, Haas teams a Motoman robot with a Haas vertical machining center and two Haas lathes.  The cell runs unattended.
Haas general manager Bob Murray is enthusiastic about the potential for growth in overseas markets. "Last year of all the units we produced, about 44% went offshore. By 2010, he expects Haas to export between 65% to 70% of output with as much as 4,000 units being shipped to Europe. "Last year Europe accounted for 1,500 machines." Murray is also optimistic about China, where Haas has had a presence since 1994. By 2010 he expects shipments to China growing to 3,000 from 500 in 2005. Murray's 2006 estimate: 900 units. Murray doesn't see that projected growth changing the current policy of making all products at the Oxnard, Calif., headquarters. He sees two compelling reasons -- low shipping costs and the ease of management control.

Among machine tool builders, that manufacturing policy means Mountan leverages a unique operating model, one that always seeks to gain maximum strategic value from the manufacturing step. Another example: the Haas policy of emphasizing in-house production when it comes to make-or-buy decisions. For example, Haas doesn't buy CNC controls -- it designs and builds its own, explains Mountan. Haas also builds a competitive edge with its distribution strategy. "Domestically we devised a whole new distribution model, and now we're implementing it globally, including China," says Mountan. He describes the Haas Factory Outlet program as kind of a McDonald's approach for the company's dealer network. The intention is to eliminate inconsistencies in bringing the product to customers such as sales people selling a multitude of different things. With the McDonald's approach, Haas Factory Outlets, regardless of location, conform to a set of best practices that facilitate customer interaction. "In addition to a common marketing approach, the customers experience personnel in Haas uniforms and only Haas products are sold and serviced." Mountan says he knows of no other machine tool builder using the approach.

About This Series

IndustryWeek presents Rebuilding U.S. Manufacturing, a year-long series that will focus on case studies and expert advice that executives at U.S. manufacturing companies can use to strengthen their companies.
A characteristic of "the Haas Way" is the responsibility to leverage all the potential relevant to the enterprise. For Haas that even means going beyond customer satisfaction, product quality, production efficiency and technology. In a mode both altruistic and self-serving, Haas trains tomorrow's buying influences. By partnering with learning institutions such as Henry Ford Community College, Dearborn, Mich., Haas offers students a way of gaining shop-floor experience before entering the real world. The initiative, dating back to 1999, enlists assessments of local Haas Factory Outlets (HFOs) to select college candidates, says Henry Ford's Kenneth Wright, lead instructor, Manufacturing Productivity Systems Department. Wright says students, typically in the 28-to-30 age group, often have career affiliations with job shops, a key Haas market segment. Many of them pursue shop-floor management careers, and some students have started their own operations, he notes. Nationally more than 40 Haas Technical Education Centers are training students with machines entrusted by Haas, says Bob Skodzinsky, president of the Flat Rock, Mich.-based Haas Factory Outlet, a division of Gerotech Inc. Michigan, a state with more than 6,000 shops that cut metal, has five Haas Technical Education Centers, adds Skodzinsky.


创业精神在机床行业的最低点——1980 年代给 Gene Haas 带来了冲击。日本人在价格上与美国正面交锋——并且获胜。数十家美国机床制造商关门歇业。Gene Haas 成为了一个需求没有得到满足的客户,所以他开始了自己的事业。今天,Haas Automation Inc. 是最大的 CNC 机床批量生产商。就哈斯和他的执行团队而言,它将保持这种状态。

由 约翰·Teresko
2006 年3 月 1 日—— 最近在加利福尼亚州奥克斯纳德的 Haas 自动化公司无意中听到了以下内容:“在中国制造机床?......并且错过所有返回中国的空集装箱的特价?”
在这个俏皮话的背后,不仅仅是公司在其加利福尼亚州奥克斯纳德总部制造一切的政策。虽然制造是本地的,但客户是全球的。它的商业模式建立在管理层对产品、流程和技术的密切参与之上——足以通过客户价值建立和发展全球领先地位,甚至足以被一些日本制造商效仿!(该公司将其对卓越的不懈追求称为“哈斯之道”。)总裁兼所有者 Gene Haas 欣然承认,他并没有打算成为一家机床制造商——更不用说成为全球领导者了。


就好像他的灵感来自旧的 Warner & Swasey 公司广告活动中的一条信息。在 1992 年倒闭前的几十年里,这家位于克利夫兰的机床制造商的广告强调了基本价值观。1944 年,一则广告宣传美国胜过竞争国家,并警告缺乏个人主动性所固有的危险。标题为“让(乔治)华盛顿去做”,部分内容写道:“如果有一件事情使美国变得伟大,给我们带来了世界上最高的生活标准,那就是美国的盛大习俗。”划着你自己的独木舟。正是这种男子气概的习惯导致数百万美国人创办自己的企业,为他人创造了数百万个更好的工作岗位。”

1980 年代初期,吉恩·哈斯 (Gene Haas) 在加利福尼亚州太阳谷经营一家名为 Pro-Turn Engineering 的机械车间,已经“划着自己的独木舟”。基本上是他和几名机器操作员为航空航天业生产零件。他们专注于加工零件,因为它们的复杂性,许多其他商店都拒绝了。通过以下一系列定义事件,快速满足这些客户会导致新客户的出现:

1983 年成立哈斯自动化公司。
1988 年,第一台 Haas CNC 加工中心在 IMTS 上亮相。
2005 年公司第 50,000 台机床的里程碑式出货量。数控机床,SL-20APL 车削中心和自动零件装载机被出售给西锯,加利福尼亚州奥克斯纳德,现在拥有五台哈斯机床。
加工车间 Pro-Turn Engineering 如何成为 CNC 机床单位产量的全球领导者?

在 1980 年代,Gene Haas 和他的机器操作员正在运行的一项工作需要使用手动 5C 夹头对零件进行分度,这既费时又费力。Gene 认为必须有更好的方法来运行这项工作,因此他开始开发第一个完全可编程的自动 5C 夹头分度器。他成了自己的客户。

Haas 的增长和工厂扩张是由创新驱动的——就像独特的 Haas Office Mill。它足够小,可以穿过办公室门,也足够轻,适合大多数货运电梯。客户马特·麦考密克 (Matt McCormick) 正在南加州大学的多尔蒂视网膜研究所设立一个单位。
Haas 5C 的机械方面非常简单,将步进电机作为驱动机构,手动 5C 头部经过修改以容纳蜗杆和齿轮箱。但决定如何驱动电机和控制运动是另一回事。

有时,Gene 会考虑使用别人的控制权,但成本太高。于是他打电话给他的老同学 Kurt Zierhut,他碰巧是一名电气工程师,他们一起想出了仍然被称为“黑匣子”的第一个版本——哈斯旋转控制器。(Zierhut 后来设计了 Haas CNC 控制器,目前担任电气工程总监。)

Gene 构建了一些他的索引器,并将它们交给其他机器车间的朋友和熟人进行实际测试,只要求反馈作为回报。每个人都喜欢它们,并认为它们是提高手动机器生产力的好方法。当 Gene 于 1983 年在洛杉矶的 Westec 向公众出售 Haas 5C 时,Haas Automation 诞生了。

机械师 Raudel Marquez 检查车床输出。
客户喜欢这个概念,很快就开始要求更大的东西。这导致了 1985 年 8 英寸转台的开发。与 5C 一样,Haas 转台由装有步进电机和控制器的手动装置组成。到 1986 年,对 Haas 5C 和 8 英寸转台的需求已经超过了提供手动装置的制造商的能力。为了满足不断增长的需求,Gene 开发了自己设计的头部和桌子,并开始自己制造。通过内部制造,Haas Automation 能够更好地控制质量、成本、交货时间并将节省的成本转嫁给客户。

来自客户的不断反馈和建议导致了更多新旋转产品的开发,并最终开发了立式加工中心。在 1988 年芝加哥的 IMTS 上,Haas 推出了 VF-1,这是一台 20 英寸 x 16 英寸的立式加工中心,价格不到 50,000 美元——这是一项重大壮举。


对胜利、赛车和机床的热情在 Gene Haas 的生活中发挥了重要作用。
吉恩·哈斯 (Gene Haas) 一直在设计他自己会使用的产品,他发现了一个公式,即使在全球经济增长放缓的衰退面前,也能取得惊人的成功和快速增长。这种设计方法一直延续到 1993 年,公司在洛杉矶的 Westec 推出了第一台卧式加工中心 HS-1RP。次年推出了第一台 Haas CNC 车床 HL-1。1997 年 3 月,公司搬进了位于加利福尼亚州奥克斯纳德现址的 420,000 平方英尺的新工厂。一个月后,公司生产了第 10,000 台 CNC 机床。次年,即 1998 年 3 月,第 15,000 台机床下线,到 1999 年 4 月,总数超过 20,000 台。

到 1997 年底,CNC 机床的月产量超过 550 台,使哈斯成为美国最大的机床制造商。为了适应持续增长,在现有设施附近建造了一座 200,000 平方英尺的新建筑。这扩大了生产线并提高了机加工车间的能力,同时提供了空间来容纳一个月的成品机器库存,以加快向客户发货的速度。此次扩建使总面积达到 620,000 平方英尺,成为美国最大的单一机床工厂。 到 2000 年 9 月,第 25,000 台 Haas 机床投入使用(在芝加哥地区)。

Haas 在其加利福尼亚州奥克斯纳德总部生产所有机器。图中所示为其中型立式加工中心的生产线。每月生产 900 多台 CNC 机器。
2001 年,又增加了 200,000 平方英尺的建筑,使总建筑面积达到 820,000 平方英尺。运营总监 Richard Mountan 表示,本月将增加 211,000 平方英尺,目标是将机床的月产量增加 300 台,达到 1,300 台。Mountan 一直面临的挑战是在不影响质量或效率的情况下提高产量。

今天,哈斯自动化制造四大产品线——立式加工中心、卧式加工中心、数控车削中心和转台——以及许多大型五轴和专用机床。Mountan 说,就业人数约为 1,100 人,而且还在增长。Mountan 表示,拥有美国最大、最现代化的机床制造设施,Haas 每月出货的 CNC 机器数量超过任何其他美国制造商。他预计,随着公司追求到 2010 年将 2005 年收入从 6 亿美元增长到 10 亿美元的目标,这种情况将继续下去。

为了最大限度地提高产量和效率,Haas 将 Motoman 机器人与 Haas 立式加工中心和两台 Haas 车床组合在一起。该单元在无人看管的情况下运行。
Haas 总经理 Bob Murray 对海外市场的增长潜力充满热情。“去年我们生产的所有设备中,约有 44% 出口到海外。到 2010 年,他预计哈斯将出口 65% 至 70% 的产量,多达 4,000 台运往欧洲。”去年欧洲占 1,500机器。”默里也对中国持乐观态度,哈斯自 1994 年以来一直在中国开展业务。到 2010 年,他预计到中国的出货量将从 2005 年的 500 台增长到 3,000 台。默里 2006 年的估计:900 台。默里认为预计的增长不会改变加州奥克斯纳德总部生产所有产品的现行政策。他认为有两个令人信服的原因——低运输成本和易于管理控制。

在机床制造商中,该制造政策意味着 Mountan 利用了一种独特的运营模式,该模式始终寻求从制造步骤中获得最大的战略价值。另一个例子:Haas 的政策,在涉及自制或外购决策时强调内部生产。例如,Haas 不购买 CNC 控制器——它自己设计和制造,Mountan 解释说。Haas 还通过其分销战略建立了竞争优势。“在国内,我们设计了一种全新的分销模式,现在我们正在全球范围内实施它,包括中国,”Mountan 说。他将 Haas 工厂直销计划描述为公司经销商网络的一种麦当劳方法。目的是消除将产品提供给客户(例如销售多种不同商品的销售人员)时的不一致性。借助麦当劳的方法,哈斯工厂直销店无论位于何处,都符合一组促进客户互动的最佳实践。“除了常见的营销方法外,客户还可以体验身着 Haas 制服的工作人员,并且只销售和维修 Haas 产品。” Mountan 说他知道没有其他机床制造商使用这种方法。


“Haas 方式”的一个特点是有责任利用与企业相关的所有潜力。对于 Haas 而言,这甚至意味着超越客户满意度、产品质量、生产效率和技术。哈斯以一种既利他又自私的模式训练明天的购买影响力。通过与密歇根州迪尔伯恩的亨利福特社区学院等学习机构合作,哈斯为学生提供了一种在进入现实世界之前获得车间体验的方式。亨利福特的制造生产力系统部首席讲师肯尼思赖特说,该计划可以追溯到 1999 年,它要求对当地哈斯工厂直销店 (HFO) 进行评估,以选择大学候选人。赖特说,学生,通常在 28 到 30 岁的年龄组,通常与工作商店有职业联系,一个关键的 Haas 细分市场。他指出,他们中的许多人从事车间管理工作,有些学生已经开始自己的业务。密歇根州 Flat Rock 的 Haas Factory Outlet 总裁 Bob Skodzinsky 说,全国有 40 多个 Haas 技术教育中心正在使用 Haas 委托的机器培训学生,该公司是密歇根州 Gerotech Inc. 的一个部门,该州拥有 6,000 多家商店切割金属,拥有五个哈斯技术教育中心,Skodzinsky 补充道。

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